Download Development and Implementation of RFID Technology ...

Development and Implementation of RFID Technology �

Description of this Ebook

The book generously covers a wide range of aspects and issues related to RFID systems, namely the design of RFID antennas, RFID readers and the variety of tags (e.g. UHF tags for...

Read more

Date: 2014-06-10 22:05:27
Website: http://www.engineering108.com

[an error occurred while processing this directive]

RFID Security: Techniques, Protocols and System-On-Chip ...

6.10(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

Fundamentals.- RFID: Fundamentals and Applications.- RFID: An Anticounterfeiting Tool.- RFID Security and Privacy.- Security Prools and Techniques.- Design Trade-Offs for Realistic Privacy.- RFID Security: Cryptography and Physics Perspectives.- RFID Anticounterfeiting: An Architectural...

Read more


Website: barnesandnoble.com

Related topics : rfid applications security and privacy / rfid security and privacy issues / security and privacy in rfid systems / rfid security and privacy / rfid based security system

[an error occurred while processing this directive]

Development and Implementation of RFID Technology ...

Development and Implementation of RFID Technology 1.0

The book generously covers a wide range of aspects and issues related to RFID systems

Version History

The book generously covers a wide range of aspects and issues related to RFID systems, namely the design of RFID antennas, RFID readers and the variety of tags (e.g. UHF tags for sensing applications, surface...

Read more

Date: 2018-01-12 12:57:23
Website: https://www.crazyengineers.com

[an error occurred while processing this directive]

RFID Security : Techniques, Protocols and System-on-Chip ...

Design Trade-Offs for Realistic Privacy --

RFID Security: Cryptography and Physics Perspectives --

RFID Anticounterfeiting: An Architectural Perspective --

An Efficient and Secure RFID Security Method with Ownership Transfer --

Digital Signature Transponder --

Scalability Issues in Privacy-Compliant RFID Protocols --

Dynamic Privacy Protection for Mobile RFID Service --

Using...

Read more


Website: worldcat.org

Related topics : security and privacy in rfid systems / rfid security and privacy issues / rfid based security system / rfid security tag reader / rfid tag security system

RFID Security : Techniques, Protocols and System-on-Chip ...

Design Trade-Offs for Realistic Privacy --

RFID Security: Cryptography and Physics Perspectives --

RFID Anticounterfeiting: An Architectural Perspective --

An Efficient and Secure RFID Security Method with Ownership Transfer --

Digital Signature Transponder --

Scalability Issues in Privacy-Compliant RFID Protocols --

Dynamic Privacy Protection for Mobile RFID Service --

Using...

Read more


Website: worldcat.org

Related topics : security and privacy in rfid systems / rfid security and privacy issues / rfid based security system / rfid security tag reader / rfid tag security system

RFID security : techniques, protocols and system-on-chip ...

Part II: Security Protocols and Techniques --

Design Trade-Offs for Realistic Privacy --

RFID Security: Cryptography and Physics Perspectives --

RFID Anticounterfeiting: An Architectural Perspective --

An Efficient and Secure RFID Security Method with Ownership Transfer --

Digital Signature Transponder --

Scalability Issues in Privacy-Compliant RFID Protocols --

Dynamic Privacy Protection for...

Read more


Website: worldcat.org

Related topics : security and privacy in rfid systems / rfid security and privacy issues / rfid based security system / rfid tag security system / rfid security tag reader

Development and Implementation of RFID Technology ...

Development and Implementation of RFID Technology

by Cristina Turcu

Number of pages: 564

Description:

The book generously covers a wide range of aspects and issues related to RFID systems, namely the design of RFID antennas, RFID readers and the variety of tags (e.g. UHF tags for sensing applications, surface acoustic wave RFID tags, smart RFID tags), complex RFID systems, security and privacy issues in RFID applications, as well as the selection of encryption algorithms.

Study and Implementation of Image and Video Matting Techniques

by Siddharth Srivastava, et al. - viXra

Matting is...

Read more


Website: http://www.e-booksdirectory.com

RFID Security | ScienceDirect

About the book

Description

RFID is a method of remotely storing and receiving data using devices called RFID tags. RFID tags can be small adhesive stickers containing antennas that receive and respond to transmissions from RFID transmitters. RFID tags are used to identify and track everything from food, dogs, beer kegs to library books. RFID tags use a standard that has already been hacked by...

Read more

Date: 2018-01-12 12:10:33
Website: https://www.sciencedirect.com

RFID Security | RFID Privacy | Radio-Electronics.Com

NFC Near Field Communications

Security and privacy is a major issue for many elements of technology these days. RFID security and RFID privacy are no exception. RFID security and RFID privacy are major features of the technology and they feature highly in the way in which RFID systems are designed, set up and operated.

RFID security is an issue from several viewpoints including prevention of the...

Read more


Website: http://www.radio-electronics.com

Red Tag System - ASG Amaray

Red Tag Works How You Do.

The Red Tag system is compatible with all EAS systems, AM, EM, RF and RFID. RFID tags offer the opportunity for enhanced performance tags or 'intelligent' tags.

The new RFID Red Tag™ can give you complete item level control over your stock. A single tag incorporates RFID, EAS as well as physical security. Implementing the RFID system can reduced labour for re-stocking and improve inventory accuracy and, inventory management and while reducing out of stock situations and levels of stock holding.

The RFID Red Tags are...

Read more


Website: http://www.redtagsystem.com

How Long Do RFID Chips Last? | Techwalla.com

RFID stands for radio frequency identification, a technology that identifies, locates and tracks items using radio waves. When an item is tagged with a tiny silicon chip and an antenna -- collectively known as an RFID tag -- it can be scanned by a mobile or stationary reader to identify the item. RFID chips last varying lengths of time, depending on the design of the RFID tag and nature of the...

Read more


Website: https://www.techwalla.com

RFID,barcode,RFID VS BARCODES: Advantages and ...

RFID VS BARCODES: Advantages and disadvantages comparison.

Writer:GERRY C. SHIHDate:2015-11-05

Abstract:

While manufacturers currently employ two forms of automated data collection: barcodes and RFID systems; there is much hype as to whether RFID will end up taking over the barcode. One data collection method is not essentially better than the other; they do both carry product information however...

Read more


Website: http://www.posunitech.com

Related topics : rfid tags replace barcodes / rfid barcode tags / read write rfid tags / radio frequency identification tags (rfid) / rfid radio frequency identification tags

Definition of RFID Tags - Asset Tag & UID Label Blog

Definition of RFID Tags

RFID tags are a type of tracking system that uses smart barcodes in order to identify items. RFID is short for "radio frequency identification," and as such, RFID tags utilize radio frequency technology. These radio waves transmit data from the tag to a reader, which then transmits the information to an RFID computer program. RFID tags are frequently used for merchandise,...

Read more


Website: https://www.camcode.com

RFID VS BARCODES: Advantages and ... - Adaptalift Hyster

What is it?

 

A barcode is a visual representation of data that is scanned and interpreted for information. Each barcode contains a certain code which works as a tracking technology for products; and is represented in a sequence of lines or other shapes. Initially this technology was symbolized by the width and spaces between parallel lines that were one dimensional. This then evolved into other...

Read more

Date: 2017-03-04 02:51:53
Website: http://www.aalhysterforklifts.com.au

Related topics : read write rfid tags / rfid tags replace barcodes / radio frequency identification tags (rfid) / how to read rfid tag / rfid radio frequency identification tags

Pros and Cons: The Use of RFID for Inventory Management

Pros and Cons: The Use of RFID for Inventory Management

Aug 7, 2017

Reddit

Knowing your current inventory is at the heart of your company, and for warehouse managers and operations, inventory visibility and control are key to maximizing throughput and boosting productivity. In fact, new inventory management technology, like radio-frequency identification ( RFID ) tags, have been created to...

Read more


Website: http://veridiansol.com

Ten Problems with RFID security threat - USRIOT

And other security devices, security, RFID devices are not perfect. Although RFID equipment has been widely used, but the security threats we need to resolve before the device deployment. This article will focus on several RFID-related security issues.

Ten Problems with RFID security threat

1.RFID forgery

According to the calculation capability, RFID can be divided into three categories:

1....

Read more


Website: https://www.usriot.com

Active RFID Tags - SageData Solutions Inc

Advantages of Active RFID tags vs Passive RFID tags

Benefits of active RFID tags include range and independence from surroundings.

Range

An active RFID tag can typically be read at a range of 100 metres. This compares well against passive tags, where the read range varies according to the frequency of the tag. For LF tags, range can be less than an inch. For HF tags, range can be to a...

Read more

Date: 2016-09-24 04:56:41
Website: http://www.sagedata.com

Related topics : how much do active rfid tags cost / active rfid tag and reader / passive rfid tag uses / passive uhf rfid tag range / passive rfid tag read range

RFID Secure Protocol Based on Time-Based Hash Chain

RFID Secure Protocol Based on Time-Based Hash...

RFID Secure Protocol Based on Time-Based Hash Chain

Abstract:

Article Preview

This paper describes several typical RFID privacy protection protocol security methods. To improve the security of RFID protocols, which proposed in the literature and some deficiencies, propose a new time-based hash chain function. The program can be effective against...

Read more


Website: scientific.net

RFID Tags and the Question of Personal Privacy | News ...

RFID Tags and the Question of Personal Privacy

By Jack M. Germain

Nov 18, 2003 4:21 AM PT

Radio Frequency Identification, or RFID, is an old technology that has been quietly revolutionizing business and industry. Back in World War II, the British used RFID signals to confirm the identity of their own aircraft in flight. Today, RFID has permeated our society. It is used to track everything from...

Read more


Website: technewsworld.com

Essay: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) - Essay UK ...

Essay: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)

Essay: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)

Abstract'RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) uses radio wave to identify an object. It's mainly used to automatic identification of object in similar manner to barcode but it is not replacement of barcode. Different varieties of RFID tags can be found in market based on their functionalities.

Index Terms -...

Read more


Website: essay.uk.com

How RFID Works & Antenna Design | EAGLE | Blog

How RFID Works & Antenna Design

Sam Sattel

Tips and Tricks

Tags and Readers: How RFID Works, and How to Design Your First RFID Tag Antenna

Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) has been around for over 50 years, and in the last decade is finally cheap enough to mass-produce and place in everyday objects. This presents some new opportunities for electronics designers wanting to learn about RF and...

Read more


Website: https://www.autodesk.com

List of Top RFID Based Projects for Engineering Students

12 Comments

Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that uses radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer information from an RFID tag to RFID reader for identification purposes. The tags used do not require battery power and in turn they derive power from the electromagnetic field generated from the reader. Few tags are also available which have their own power...

Read more


Website: https://www.elprocus.com

Related topics : rfid based airport luggage security scanning system project / rfid based airport luggage security scanning system / rfid based security and access control system / rfid based library automation system project / rfid based airport luggage security system

The Evolution of RFID Security - IEEE Computer Society

RFID is a contactless identification technology that augments real-world objects with remotely-powered computing capabilities. Even though RFID-tagging of objects such as passports, pets, prisoners, and even the elderly seems revolutionary and unprecedented, RFID technology itself has a rich history that began with Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems during World War II. This article charts the parallel evolution of RFID...

Read more


Website: https://www.computer.org

Related topics : rfid security and privacy threats / security and privacy in rfid systems / rfid security and privacy issues / rfid technology security / rfid security issues and solutions

RFID Solutions : 3M Europe

3M RFID Solutions are intuitive, easy to use and attractive.

They're grounded in decades of research and subjected to rigorous testing - resulting in durable, reliable and accurate systems.

We offer an all-RFID system, as well as the option of Tattle-Tape[TM] Security for added protection. 3M also makes its RFID tag data format available to users.

For full details of our product range and our...

Read more


Website: http://solutions.3m.com

Related topics : 3m rfid library security system / 3m library rfid tags / 3m rfid library solutions / rfid library system technology / rfid based library security system

3M South Africa: Library Systems - RFID Solutions

Contact Us

RFID Solutions

3M RFID Solutions are intuitive, easy to use and attractive. They're grounded in decades of research and subjected to rigorous testing - resulting in durable, reliable and accurate systems. We offer an all-RFID system, as well as the option of Tattle-Tape[TM] Security for added protection. 3M also makes its RFID tag data format available to users.

RFID Systems

RFID Education Series

Are you curious about RFID technology and its benefits and risks for your library?...

Read more


Website: http://solutions.3m.co.za

Related topics : 3m rfid library security system / 3m library rfid tags / rfid library system technology / 3m rfid library solutions / library rfid tags

3M Gulf: Library Systems - Solutions - RFID

Contact Us

RFID Solutions

3M RFID Solutions are intuitive, easy to use and attractive. They're grounded in decades of research and subjected to rigorous testing - resulting in durable, reliable and accurate systems. We offer an all-RFID system, as well as the option of Tattle-Tape[TM] Security for added protection. 3M also makes its RFID tag data format available to users.

RFID Systems

RFID Education Series

Are you curious about RFID technology and its benefits and risks for your library?...

Read more


Website: http://solutions.3mae.ae

Related topics : 3m rfid library security system / 3m library rfid tags / 3m rfid library solutions / rfid library system technology / library rfid tags

RFID viruses: A threat or not? - Software - Feature ...

RFID viruses: A threat or not?

by Steve Kerrison on 16 March 2006, 14:19

Add to My Vault :

While some might say that RFID technology itself is a virus set to spread the earth (a demonic one at that, according to a few), a recent investigation by security researchers has revealed that RFID tags could be used to spread computer viruses. But is the threat of a virus from an RFID tag real, or will...

Read more


Website: http://hexus.net

RFID Based Attendance System with Related Applications

RFID Based Attendance System

The aim of this project is to maintain the record of the students' attendance by using RFID tags. Each student is issued with his/ her authorized tag, which can be used for swiping in front of the RFID reader to record their attendance.

Block Diagram of RFID based Attendance System by Edgefxkits.com

In most of the colleges and schools,attendance is recorded manually -...

Read more


Website: https://www.elprocus.com

Rfid ppt - de.slideshare.net

Keine Notizen für die Folie

Rfid ppt

1. RFID Based Embedded System for Vehicle Tracking and Prevention of Road Accidents 1 Ronson Calvin Fernandes 110919053 Manipal Institute of Technology - Manipal 11/19/2013

2. 2 Contents Introduction What is RFID ? RFID Applications RFID System RFID Tag , RFID Reader , GSM How V.T works ? Design and Implementation Benefits of V.T ...

Read more


Website: de.slideshare.net

A RESEARCH SURVEY: RFID SECURITY & PRIVACY ISSUE

Show related SlideShares at end

WordPress Shortcode

A RESEARCH SURVEY: RFID SECURITY & PRIVACY ISSUE

69 views

Jan 25, 2018

"Information security and privacy" is one of the major challenges in the communication world

of IT as each and every information we pass need to be secured enough to the extent that it

doesn't...

Read more


Website: slideshare.net

Related topics : rfid security and privacy a research survey / rfid security and privacy issues / rfid security and privacy threats / rfid security and privacy / rfid security research paper

RFID Readers, RFID Reader Manufacturer - D.O RFID Group

RFID handheld reader

D.O RFID Group

D.O RFID Group is a Hi-tech enterprise which specializes in RFID and IoT industry. We focus on the research, development, design, and production of smart cards, RFID Wristbands, RFID Labels and Tags.

Since 2003, our products have been exported to over 80 countries in Europe, North/South America, Australia, Middle East, Russia and Asia, widely used in...

Read more


Website: https://www.dorfidreader.com

RFID - Radio Frequency Identification Tags....!

Introduction

Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID ) has existed in some form or another for over 40 years. It is a method of automatically identifying a given object/person by storing and remotely retrieving information from small transponders, called RFID tags. These tags have an antenna built into them, which allows for the transmission and reception of radio waves from an RFID...

Read more

Date: 2011-11-15 20:48:59
Website: http://rfident.org

Related topics : radio frequency identification technology (rfid) / passive rfid tag and reader / active rfid tag and reader / radio frequency identification device rfid technology / a small passive uhf rfid tag for metallic item identification

RFID in Libraries: Privacy and Confidentiality Guidelines ...

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology collects, uses, stores, and broadcasts data. Components of RFID systems include tags, tag readers, computer hardware (such as servers and security gates) and RFID-specific software (such as RFID system administration programs, inventory software, etc.).

RFID technology can enable efficient and ergonomic inventory, security, and circulation...

Read more

Date: 2017-12-10 01:59:13
Website: http://www.ala.org

RFID chip in solar modules: efficient tagging and ...

RFID chip in solar modules: efficient tagging and performance tracking?

In the military, every officer and soldier is numbered, and so are usually properly itemized goods in warehouses�or�animals in farms. Numbering individual people, things and livestock is a means to improve its organization and�management, and this is the idea behind�an�RFID chip in a solar module.

In most countries...

Read more


Website: sinovoltaics.com

Top 10 RFID Security Concerns and Threats | securitywing

Top 10 RFID Security Concerns and Threats

February 12, 2015

by wing

Like any other security devices and mechanism RFID is not flawless. Despite its widespread application and usage, RFID poses security threats and challenges that need to be addressed properly before deployment. This post aims to highlight several important RFID related security issues.

RFID Counterfeiting: depending on the...

Read more


Website: https://securitywing.com

The Evolution of RFID Security - computer.org

Andrew S. Tanenbaum , Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

ABSTRACT

RFID is a contactless identification technology that augments real-world objects with remotely-powered computing capabilities. Even though RFID-tagging of objects such as passports, pets, prisoners, and even the elderly seems revolutionary and unprecedented, RFID technology itself has a rich history that began with Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems during World War II. This article...

Read more


Website: https://www.computer.org

Related topics : rfid security and privacy threats / security and privacy in rfid systems / rfid security and privacy issues / rfid security issues and solutions / rfid technology security

RFID tag | The IT Law Wiki | Fandom powered by Wikia

Form factor .

Tags can be attached to items using an adhesive or can be embedded within the item. The primary concern when a tag is attached to an item is how easily it might be detached, whether accidentally or maliciously. Tags attached to items also are more vulnerable to harsh environmental conditions such as dust, debris, humidity, precipitation, and extreme temperatures. However, the...

Read more

Date: 2013-12-13 16:36:05
Website: http://itlaw.wikia.com

Related topics : passive rfid tag and reader / rfid passive tag reader cost / rfid tag and reader communication / passive rfid tag reader price / rfid active reader passive tag

HQ 966961 - Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tags ...

RE: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tags; GRI 5(b)

Dear Mr. Peterson:

This is in response to your request dated January 22, 2004, on behalf of your client, Target Corporation, concerning the classification under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS) of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags that are imported attached to other goods. In response to our requests, by...

Read more


Website: http://www.faqs.org

Rfid presentation - de.slideshare.net

RFID Technology & It's UsesRFID Technology & It's Uses Presented by: Ron AbdyPresented by: Ron Abdy 33rdrd July 2013July 2013

2. Who is BCDS? Founded in 1982 in New South Wales Headquarters in Sydney Australia Experienced in products through Asia Data capture solutions leader

3. What Has BCDS Implemented?What Has BCDS Implemented? Asset Tracking - Astrack Enterprise Visitor Tracking ...

Read more


Website: de.slideshare.net

Rfid presentation - fr.slideshare.net

RFID Technology & It's UsesRFID Technology & It's Uses Presented by: Ron AbdyPresented by: Ron Abdy 33rdrd July 2013July 2013

2. Who is BCDS? Founded in 1982 in New South Wales Headquarters in Sydney Australia Experienced in products through Asia Data capture solutions leader

3. What Has BCDS Implemented?What Has BCDS Implemented? Asset Tracking - Astrack Enterprise Visitor Tracking ...

Read more


Website: https://fr.slideshare.net

Are keys or RFID tags more secure access control solutions?

��

Are higher-security RFID tokens susceptible to power analysis attacks? As for "cloning keys from space", that's funny :) -� Deer Hunter Jul 18 '13 at 5:35

1

@DeerHunter a power analysis attack would be against a specific installation or implementation, not against the underlying technology itself. Perhaps, for example, model X123 would be vulnerable if installed according to...

Read more


Website: security.stackexchange.com

Related topics : rfid based security and access control system / rfid key tag / rfid security tag reader / rfid tag security issues / rfid tag reader system

Are keys or RFID tags more secure access control solutions?

  

 

Are higher-security RFID tokens susceptible to power analysis attacks? As for "cloning keys from space", that's funny :) -  Deer Hunter Jul 18 '13 at 5:35

1

 

@DeerHunter a power analysis attack would be against a specific installation or implementation, not against the underlying technology itself. Perhaps, for example, model X123 would be vulnerable if installed according to figure 3...

Read more


Website: security.stackexchange.com

Related topics : rfid based security and access control system / rfid key tag / rfid security tag reader / rfid tag security issues / rfid tag reader system

RFID Security and Privacy - 7th International Workshop ...

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-worksop proceedings of the 7th International Workshop Radio Frequency Identification: Security and Privacy Issues. RFIDSec 2011, held in Amherst,...

Read more


Website: http://www.springer.com

Related topics : rfid security and privacy issues / rfid secure protocol / rfid security protocols / rfid tag security issues / rfid security and privacy

What Are the Different Types of RFID Tag Antenna?

These 10 facts about space will blow your mind

Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are used to keep track of inventory and aid in stolen property recovery. Additional uses include paying for toll charges through automatic bank account deduction, warehouse supply management and security measures. An RFID tag antenna communicates a unique bar code back to a computer system that determines...

Read more


Website: wisegeek.com

Complete Guide to RFID: Benefits, Applications, and ...

RFID (radio frequency identification) is a cutting-edge technology that has made this a reality. So, let's see what RFID is?

What Is RFID?

RFID stands for "radio frequency identification." It's a technology that captures digital data encoded in smart labels and RFID tags through a reader via radio waves.

RFID serves a similar purpose to that of a bar code or a magnetic strip of an ATM card where...

Read more


Website: https://dzone.com

What is RFID? - Digital Workplace - Grand Valley State ...

RFID systems can use a cellular system called Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) to make sure the wireless communication is handled properly [source: RFID Journal ].

Passive RFID tags rely entirely on the reader as their power source. These tags are read up to 20 feet (six meters) away, and they have lower production costs, meaning that they can be applied to less expensive merchandise. These...

Read more


Website: https://www.gvsu.edu

Related topics : passive rfid tag uses / cost of active and passive rfid tags / rfid passive tag reader cost / passive rfid tag reader price / rfid active reader passive tag

RFID FAQs - Barcoding, Inc.

Check out some of our most frequently asked questions about RFID (radio frequency identification) technology. Since 1998, we've helped companies add the power of RFID to their businesses. We can help you too!

Have a question we didn't cover? Please contact us !

FAQs on RFID Technology and RFID Systems

What is RFID?

RFID, or Radio Frequency IDentification, is a data collection method that...

Read more


Website: http://www.barcoding.com

Related topics : rfid tags replace barcodes / small rfid tags long range / rfid tags future uses / rfid tags and readers cost / how much rfid tags cost

RFID security issues are cause for corporate concern

News Stay informed about the latest enterprise technology news and product updates.

RFID security issues are cause for corporate concern

by

Tim Scannell

TechTarget

Although small in nature, RFID tags could be used to attack databases and corrupt critical information. It's a growing concern as corporate RFID use skyrockets, yet experts say there are reasonable ways to mitigate the risks and gain...

Read more


Website: http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com

RFID Project Ideas For Engineers | Full Circuits With ...

tweet

Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that uses radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer information from a tag to RFID reader for identification purposes. The tags do not require battery power. They derive power from the electromagnetic field generated from the reader. Some tags are also available which have their own power source. When it comes to RFID project...

Read more


Website: electronicsforu.com

CiteSeerX — Citation Query Rfid privacy: An overview of ...

RFID security and privacy: A research survey

by Ari Juels - ISBN 978-89-5519-136-3 -88- Feb. 17-20, 2008 ICACT 2008 , 2006

"... Abstract--This paper surveys recent technical research on the problems of privacy and security for radio frequency identification (RFID). RFID tags are small, wireless devices that help identify objects and people. Thanks to dropping cost, they are likely to...

Read more


Website: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu